The squad catfishes
Atkritumu fish. One dorsal fin. Pelvic fins located on the belly. In the pectoral fins and in most species the dorsal fin is spiny, often jagged rays. Non-rising mouth surrounded by tendrils. The jaws teeth. Body naked or covered with bony plates. Many have an adipose fin.
The inhabitants of the mainly tropical and subtropical freshwaters of South and Central America, Africa and Asia.
The squad consists of 20-30 families and over 1,200 species. 2 family of marine fish.
The Catfish Family – Siluridae
Body naked, elongated. Adipose fin not. The head is flattened, the mouth large, polverini. Dorsal fin short (not more than 5 rays). Anal fin long, not less than 70 rays. These freshwater and brackish-water predatory fish with spring and summer spawning. They live in fresh water in Europe and Asia, in addition to the basin of the Arctic ocean.
The family includes 8 genera, 2 of which are found in our country.
Rod Catfish – Silurus. Antennae 3 pairs. Thorn in the pectoral fin is smooth.
The genus includes 2 species.
Com S. glanis Linne, 1758. Front mandibular barbels shorter than the back. Spiny rays of the pectoral fin is strong (Fig. 110, 1). Reaches a length of 5 m. of residential Forms and the checkpoint form. These fish developed to take care of offspring. Soma build primitive nests from vegetation remnants.Inhabit the waterways of Europe: the Rhine, North to South Finland, and South to Asia Minor.
Som Soldatova – S. soldatovi Nikolsky et Soin. 1948. Front mandibular antennae are longer than the rear. Spiny rays of the pectoral fin is weak. Reaches a length of 4 m. it Inhabits the Amur river.
Rod Parasailor – Parasilurus. 2 pairs of antennae. Prickle pectoral fin notched. Fish of this genus found in water from Western Greece to Japan.
The genus includes 6 species. In reservoirs of our country lives 1.
Figure 110 – Catfish fish:
1 – com; 2 – the Amur catfish; 3 – orca-skrypon; 4 – orca-whip; 5 channel catfish; 6 – the sea catfish.
Amur catfish P. asotus (Linne, 1758). Reaches length of 1 m. the Eggs are not guarded. Vytopil (Fig. 110, 2). Lives in the basin of the Amur river, rivers of China, Japan and Korea.
Kostrovye Family – Bagridae
Body moderately elongate, naked. There is an adipose fin. The dorsal fin has spines and is located anterior to the abdominal. Anal fin short or of moderate length. In pelvic fins not more than 6 branched rays. Mouth bottom. The front nostrils are too far from the rear. Posterior nostril usually with a short moustache. Another pair of antennae is located on the upper jaw and 1-2 pairs on the bottom. Teeth located on the jaws, sometimes on the Palatine bones. Slezny, covering the body and fins are poisonous. It is a freshwater bottom fish that inhabit the waters of Africa and Asia.
The family includes about 15 genera.
Genus Orca-scarponi – Pseudobagrus. The outer edge of the pectoral fin spines are serrated. Maxillary barbels long and usually reach the pectoral fins start or even further.
Orca-skrypon – P. fulvidraco (Richardson, 1846). Reaches a length of over 30 cm (Fig. 110, 3). Developed to take care of offspring: males dig burrows in the ground and guarded by laying eggs. These fish feed on benthos and small fish. Live in the rivers of China, Northern Vietnam, on the island of Hainan, and in the Amur river.
Genus Orca – Liocassis. Thorn of pectoral fin along the outer edge smooth. Maxillary barbels short, not reaching the beginning of the pectoral fins.
Orca-whip – L. ussuriensis (Dybowskii, 1872). Adipose fin long, equal in length to the anal (Fig. 110, 4).
Reaches length of 1 m. Feeds mainly on benthic invertebrates. Inhabits the rivers of China and the Amur river.
The family of an American soma or Soma-cats – Ictaluridae (Amiuridae)
Close to Asadovym, which differ by the absence of teeth on the palate and a longer ventral fins, which contains 7 branched rays. They live in fresh water in North America and acclimatized in our country.
Cat catfish rod – Jctalurus. It is a freshwater bottom-dwelling fish, take care of the offspring. Reproduce at a temperature of 18-20 0 C, feed on benthic invertebrates and fish.
Channel catfish – I. punctatus Raf. Reaches a length of 50 cm (Fig. 110, 5).
A family of Marine catfishes, or Aravya – Ariidae
Body moderately elongate, naked. There is an adipose fin. The head is conical or slightly prelucrata. Mouth polonijny. It has 3 pairs of antennae: one pair on the upper jaw and two on bottom. Nostrils close together and have the valve but not the mustache. In the dorsal and pectoral fins there is one long to see the detailed spike. Large or medium size fish. Marine, preductive, distributed in coastal waters of tropical seas. Take care of the offspring. Injections spiny rays very painful.
The family includes more than 10 genera.
A genus of Marine catfishes, or Ariosi – Arius. Differs from allied genera by the presence of teeth on palatal bones and the presence of in addition to maxillary and chin whiskers. Many species live in tropical waters.
Marine catfish A. thalassinus (Rppell, 1835). Reaches a length of 62 cm (Fig. 110, 6). Inhabits the waters of the Indian and Western Pacific oceans and in the sea of Japan.