The pond with their own hands for cultivation of fish with an artificial bottom
The pond on the site can be a favorite vacation spot. Pond fish is a complex hydraulic structure. What is difficult in General, consists of a number of simple rules. If you apply patience and diligence to make a pond with their own hands for cultivation of fish can any householder on their needs and your taste.
Why you need a pond
The pond is always a decoration of the site, on its edges, you can plant the plants. His presence on site creates a special microclimate.
The opportunity to grow organic fish. In our time – is not unimportant!
Get pleasure from fishing. If there are no natural water bodies, to create conditions useful for the health of the hobby. This can be a family holiday or with friends.
The choice of location
The reservoir should be placed taking into account that till 11 am, he should be well publicized. In the daytime, to 15 hours for pond fits the shade or shade. In warm water are good conditions for development of algae, reducing oxygen for fish.
Deciduous trees should be at some distance from the pond so that the leaves did not litter the pond. The leaves of some trees have harmful effects on fish, it is also possible to transfer aphids on aquatic plants.
The device of the pond
Prodimages to be:
with a natural bottom,
with an artificial bottom.
If the soil is clayey, loamy, and the thickness of this layer more than 50 cm, it is possible to make a pond with a natural bottom. This reservoir will require a minimum of effort. You can use a natural ravine or crease on the ground and to expand and deepen to your desired size. In the absence of such a recess should be dug. The pond needs to be strengthened along the shore.
Such ponds is also called a tank. If the groundwater level is located close to the surface, a few metres from Copanca arrange drainage trench (castle). This event will prevent leakage of water from the pond.
If the soil does not retain water, the necessary measures for waterproofing the bottom and sides of the pond. Pit arrange a little larger than the design.
Device the bottom and sides of the pond
A layer of clay, followed by compaction, or waterproofing membrane.
Concreting bottom and sides: arrange formwork, on the stones placed mesh for reinforcement with cells of 30 by 30 cm Fixed pipe for water drainage. In the formwork poured concrete.
A layer of soil
Concreting – the safest way to pond with an artificial bottom. Before filling the pond with water, after pouring concrete should be at least three weeks. The sides and bottom are washed with water five times, the plants are planted.
Practiced more simplified version of the waterproofing of the walls and bottom of the pond: a clay layer or film is pressed to the bottom of the meshes, or large stones. In the recesses are arranged in containers. The bottom is covered with a layer of soil or sand.
The shape and size of the pond
A small pond requires more attention. It should be cleaned regularly. Amateur pond make 5 ÷ 10 square meters, more. Taken into account: 10 ÷ 20 fish at the water cube.
Optimum pond depth of three meters. In this pond the fish can hibernate, and the man is nice in the heat to dip. The third part of the pond surface area should have a smaller depth 0.5 ÷ 1.5 m. It is necessary for the life of fish: spawning, feeding. Can take depth pounds 1 ÷ 1.5 meters, if the fish will spend the winter in the center of the pond dig the barrel (wintering well).
Well, if it turns out to make the pond a sloping beach, at least on one side. This will help to diversify the vegetation. The outline of the pond with an artificial bottom can be any, often do oval. A pond with an artificial bottom may be multi-layered. Step width of 20 ÷ 30 cm. First stage begins at a depth of 20 ÷ 30 cm.
Flooding, water discharge
If the device pool is an important issue the availability of water: it can be close-lying ground water, Creek, artesian well. Choose an appropriate method for the particular case of water supply: by means of a pump, using gradients, or lay in the design of the pipe.
On a gentle shore arrange the drain pipe for the natural replenishment of the water reservoir. So the pond doesn’t overflow with water, on a gentle Bank doing drainage channel. The elevation of its bottom coincides with the level of water in the reservoir, the width of about 50 cm the small building Is strengthen on slopes with gravel. Doing it differently: at the level of the water is mounted an overflow pipe. The excess shimmer on it in a container without a bottom, next to the pond in the pit.
Drain the water from the pond: you can pump, or lay in the design of the pond at the bottom of the pipe discharging into the sump, where it is possible to place the capacity, and water use for irrigation.
After the pond is filled with water, let it settle for a few days. Water will become a medium for the microorganisms, suitable for fish life. To help this process, it is good to bring out lived-a couple of buckets of pond water.