The Mariana trench and its inhabitants
The Mariana trench is the deepest of the currently known geographic features. Trough stretches along the Mariana Islands for more than 1500 km At the bottom of the trench the water pressure reaches 108.6 MPa!
In 1958, the expedition established the existence of life at depths greater than 7000 meters, thereby disproving the common perception at the time, the idea of the impossibility of life at depths greater than 6000-7000 m. In 1960 it was held immersion bathyscaphe Trieste to the bottom of the Marianas trench to the depth is 10915 m.
The recording sounds the device was to transfer to the surface of the noise-like gnashing of teeth of the saws. At the same time on the TV monitor appeared a vague shadow, like a giant fairy dragons. These creatures had several heads and tails. After an hour, the scientists of the research vessel were worried that the unique equipment, made of beams of heavy-duty titanium-cobalt steel, spherical shape with a diameter of about 9 m, can remain in the abyss forever. It was decided to raise it up. The equipment was recovered from the depths for more than eight hours. As soon as he appeared on the surface, it immediately put on a special raft. Camera and sonar picked up on deck. It turned out that a strong steel construction beams were deformed, and 20-inch steel rope, on which it is being lowered,turned out to be half-sawn. Who tried to leave the unit at depth and why – is a complete mystery..
This is not the only case of a collision with an inexplicable in the depths of the Mariana trench. Something similar happened with the German research unit “hayfish” with the crew on Board. Caught at a depth of 7 km, the machine suddenly refused to emerge. Figuring out the cause of the problem, hydronauts included infrared camera. What they saw in the next few seconds seemed to them a collective hallucination: a huge prehistoric reptiles, glaring teeth in the bathyscaphe, tried to chew it like a nut. Recovering himself, the crew powered device called the “electric gun”. The monster, struck a powerful discharge, disappeared into the abyss.
Inexplicable and incomprehensible has always attracted people, so scientists around the world are so eager to answer the question: “What conceals in its depths the Mariana trench?”
For a long time oceanographers thought was madness the hypothesis that at depths greater than 6000 m in the impenetrable darkness, under enormous pressure and at temperatures close to zero, life can exist. However, the results of research scientists in the Pacific have shown that at these depths, far below the 6000-metre mark, there is a huge colony of living organisms of pogonophora ((rocopera – from the Greek. pogon – beard and phoros – bearing), a type of marine invertebrate animals that live in long chitinous, open at both ends of the tubes). Recently the veil of secrecy lifted manned and unmanned, made from heavy-duty materials, underwater vehicles equipped with video cameras. The result was the discovery of a rich community of animals, consisting of both well-known and less familiar marine groups.
Thus, at depths of 6000 to 11000 km were found: – bareville bacteria (developing only at high pressure), – foraminifera (order of the simplest subclass of corneous with cytoplasmic body, dressed sink) and xenophyophore (basophilia bacteria from protozoa); – polychaete worms, isopods, crayfish, amphipods, sea cucumbers, bivalves and gastropods.
At the depths there is no sunlight, no algae, constant salinity, low temperature, the abundance of carbon dioxide, enormous hydrostatic pressure (increases by 1 atmosphere for every 10 meters). What feed the inhabitants of the abyss? The food sources of deep animal – bacteria as well as the “rain of corpses” and organic detritus coming from above; the animals of deep or blind, or with very developed eyes, often telescopic; many fish and cephalopods with PhotoForum; other forms illuminates the surface of the body or its parts. Therefore, the appearance of these animals as horrible and unbelievable as the conditions in which they live. They include the terrifying worms length of 1.5 m, without mouth and anus, octopus mutant, unusual starfish and some soft-bodied creatures two-meter length, which in General is not yet identified.
People could never resist the desire to explore the unknown, and the rapidly developing world of technological progress allows us all to delve deeper into the secret world of the most inhospitable and rebellious in the world environment – the oceans. Subjects for research in the Mariana trench will last for years to come, given the fact that the most inaccessible and enigmatic parts of our planet, unlike mount Everest (altitude 8848 m), was conquered only once. So, on January 23, 1960, the officer of naval forces of the United States don Walsh and Swiss Explorer Jacques Piccard, protected armored, 12-inch-thick wall bathyscaphe called the Trieste managed to descend to a depth 10915 meters. Although scientists have made tremendous advances in the study of the Mariana trench, the issues have not diminished, there are new mysteries that are yet to be solved. And the ocean depths is able to keep their secrets. Will people in the near future to open them?