Golden pond fish

The history of breeding goldfish Asia has at least a Millennium and originated from children’s hobby to collecting. in which the housing was offered and developed in cages. in the paddocks. in the wells. in tubs and barrels for all small and medium animals — as the first kind of Pets at home .

In China and Korea over a thousand years ago was engaged in not only fishing. but breeding and raising goldfish. Over the years of breeding the Chinese fish farmers. appeared and established natural mutations with drastic changes in body shape and fin structure. eyes. the structure of the skin and staining fish were obtained decorative forms and color variations, which became the core of most of today’s known species.

The first written mention of the Golden fish with red scales came from China during the reign of the Qing dynasty ( 265 -420 ad ). In those days, these fish were seen in one of the lakes of mount Lushan. the area of the river the City is near the modern province of Shaanxi. which flows to the South China and Northern Vietnam. [6] In the ancient Chinese treatise Shan Hai Jing. presumably written in the late centuries BC — the beginning of our, there is also a record of the “red carp”. However, there is absolutely no certainty that these wild representatives were the ancestors of segodnyashnaya fish. It is assumed that the red coloration was obtained as a result of purposeful breeding work first pet lovers and falls on the reign of the Tang dynasty ( 618 -907 year of a new era ). [7]

It is possible that the appearance of unusual forms and colors of goldfish had a direct influence of the religious community professing Buddhism. manifestation of pity and humanity to the poor, while maintaining the ugly offspring of pond fish in specially equipped farms and dams, and then in specially created containers and decorative vessels; not taking them for food. Thus, in China began to appear “merciful ponds”, [8] and the practice of preservation of life and delay the death of the animal has become known as “Fang-Sheng” ( life the releasing ).

After 960 -x, — already during the song dynasty. goldfish, along with many other animals, have become popular household Pets swimming pools. This period is perceived by the beginning of the domestication of goldfish and their satellites — objects and subjects of the water element. Originally, this decoration of wealthy houses and yards of rich landowners, the size of the territories that allowed them to arrange private ponds and pools with fountains .

The popularity and demand for goldfish has become a core business in mass breeding of fish and realization of human goods. Already in the XIII century there is a new kind of animal: — trade variations of the goldfish under the name “Yu-erh-Ho”. Starting from this period until the XVI century, the fish gradually move from pool to spacious aquariums are not only the very rich and nobles, but in the homes of middle class and lower class .

The history of the distribution of goldfish in Asia is scarce. It is likely that the first way of settlement and sales reached Indo-China and neighboring countries China and then in the early sixteenth century. fish caught in Japan. became home to many new varieties; local breeders. seeking in accordance with the traditions of national art to create a beautiful and harmonious shape, have become recognized leaders in their field.

“The seller of goldfish” (painting British artist English. George Dunlop Leslie (1835 -1921 ))

In the XVII century via Dutch and Portuguese merchants were accepted in Europe. where the original had a huge cost, so their content could afford only very wealthy people. In the nineteenth century gradually developed as the supply of fish from China and breeding them on the ground, which leads to lower prices. However, to date, the major varieties of goldfish are rocks brought from the Far East. The first known mention of the importation of goldfish into Europe from China (Zhejiang province ) date back to 1611. Over the years 1691 and 1728. [9]

Accurate information about the priority of “gold” in the European part, which imported fish — no. According to some sources they came from Macau. and according to another version — aquarium fish delivered Java and South Africa. in Portugal. It is known that it was in the XVII century. since the literature mentions two dates: 1611 and/or 1691. but due to the lack of a clear source — the dates are questionable. In the same period of time (year 1691 ) States and England. In the eighteenth century aquarium gold fish has spread throughout Europe and reached Russia. The first “accounts” on the sale of fish in the Northern territories of Europe were recorded in Holland in 1728 .

Many caravan routes stretched across the expanses of the earth changed its direction from East Asia West to Europe. entering the ancient lands of modern Russia. and along the great silk road (Keith. 丝绸之路 ) brought not only silk and spices. One of the first to reach the European part of the Russian land and “goldfish”. Mention of gold overseas in Russia are found in the testimonies of the XV century — the reign of the Grand Prince of Moscow Vasily the Dark. In the XVI century. Tsar Ivan the terrible repeatedly receives the gift of the goldfish from the foreign ambassadors in glass balls, and in the second half of the seventeenth century in “Apothecary garden” of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich set a vase with Golden fish, presented as a gift to the British, which led to the introduction of court fish farmers. Under Peter the great, fabulously expensive, but stylish “flask” with strange fish began to appear and some confidants of the king, and in 1790 at a party in honor of Catherine II. Prince Grigory Potemkin presented light goldfish — wonder still huge price.

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