“Calypso” and the corals”, Jacques-Yves Cousteau

Described in the book “the silent world” (the shark that attacked Cousteau and Dumas is, apparently, the oceanic whitetip shark. Characteristic for this kind of long pectoral fins, the snout short and broadly rounded, with a white spot, the apex of the dorsal fin, along with a greatly elongated upper lip and a large, scalloped posterior edge of the caudal fin, in good agreement applied in the book and photographs contained in her description. The oceanic whitetip shark is common in tropical waters of the Atlantic ocean and the Mediterranean sea. This is a pelagic shark of the open sea, rarely found above a depth of less than 180-200 m. this is Probably why it was new for Cousteau familiar with the fishes of the coastal zone, and he found it difficult to identify its species name. It reaches a length of 4 m (and possibly more); noted her courage in relation to being in water people, it is considered dangerous.

Alcyonaria — eight numerous group of colonial anthozoans (coelenterates type) that forms colonies of mostly wrong tree forms, common in both tropical and in temperate and Northern seas.

Antigone — poluprovodn the widespread pink or red fish, high laterally compressed body which have in profile the shape of a rhombus. Dostigayutsya 15-20 cm, occurring at depths from 60 to 1000 m.

Barracuda . or Sea pike is a predatory sea fish, resembling the body shape of our regular pike. It has a long snout, a large mouth is equipped with in front of several powerful klinovidnye teeth. Common in warm seas, in the Black sea rarely comes in one small look. Large species reaching 180 cm in length and 45 kg in weight; there are known cases of attacks on humans.

The hydroids . Hydroid polyps — a group of coelenterates animals close to the coral polyps, but simply arranged, without partitions inside the body. Only some species of this group have a strong calcareous skeleton, forming a stony colonies similar to colonies of coral polyps, hydroids, many (most) resemble the mosses, often forming a whole cluster (so-called “sea moss”).

Sea cucumbers — one of the classes of animals such as echinoderms. Body shape similar to normal cucumbers (hence the name “sea cucumbers”), with a crown of tentacles at the anterior end of the body, are crawling lifestyle. In the opening at the rear end of the body cavity internal organs in some species of sea cucumbers often hide small eel-like fish of foersteri.

Groupers — percoid fish of the family Of. Live in warm seas, typically on coral reefs, often brightly colored, the color is mainly striped and spotted. The usual length of 50-100 cm, but some species grow to giant size, up to 230 cm in length and over 220 kilograms of weight. Grouper Oils described Cousteau’s “Living sea”, is a tukul, common in the waters of the North-Western part of the Indian ocean — Zanzibar, Madagascar, Aldabra, the Seychelles and Mauritius. Reaches, over 138 cm in length and 50 kg weight (probably even 100 kg).

Sponge — stationary primitive marine animals attached to the bottom or underwater objects are different. The body is in the circuit kind of bag or vase with two-layer wall penetrated by pores through which water is continuously passed. Their body is usually supported by a skeleton in the form of uniaxial and multiaxial flint or limestone (calcareous and glass sponges) needles or Horny fibres (Horny sponges).

Horny sponges are used for practical purposes.

Diatomeen — flint unicellular algae, the shells of which sometimes form huge deposits (diatomaceous ooze, diatomaceous sand, diatomite etc.).

Coral fish . or butterfly fish is a small fish of the family Detinatorii with high, compressed laterally, body, common in tropical seas, mainly in the waters of coral reefs. Many very brightly and vividly colored.

Corals are colonial polyps with a calcareous skeleton, forming coral reefs; live in the tropical region of the ocean.

Red, or noble, coral from the squad Gorgonaria, eight-pointed coral polyps, it is distributed mainly in the Mediterranean sea, at a depth of from 10 to 150 m In the Central calcareous stalk him there is a significant impurity (up to 4 %) iron oxide, making it painted in different shades of red, from pink to dark red. The usual height of colonies of 20-40 cm thick branches of 2-4 cm Red coral is the subject of special Providence, going back to ancient times. Processed mainly in Naples and is highly valued necklaces and other jewelry. Related species are produced in the Far East.

Flying fish is a typical fish of the warm seas and open waters of the tropical region within a constant water temperature 20-33°. Have elongated Paired fins and do with them gliding flights above the surface of the sea by up to half a minute and range of up to 200 and even 400 m.

Madrepora is one of the most important reef-making corals, tree-like forms or massive, widely distributed in tropical seas. Built of six-rayed symmetry. Many species are perennial, they formed polinak, (coral reef) lives for decades and centuries.

Sea urchins — demersal, spherical or egg-shaped marine animals such as Echinoderms covered with a solid calcareous needles. There are about 800 species of sea urchins. Tropical species with needles up to 12 inches in length.

Sea stars — echinoderms animals having a star-shaped pentagonal or orbicular flattened body. Widely distributed in the seas full of salinity, in the Barents and far Eastern seas. Crawling bottom animals, feed on shellfish.

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